Special Schemes for the Accountability of Value Added Tax (VAT) and Different Finance Sources for a Register Ltd UK Business


There are different special schemes available like the yearly accounting scheme, scheme of cash accounting and the scheme of flat rate that combine to make up the special schemes. The accountability of VAT is made easier by these schemes in specific types of trader usually with the turnover that is relatively low in ltd formation UK. As far as the sources of finance are considered, there are many of them available for individuals, short or long term, secured or unsecured. These topics will be discussed in the blog including further details of the schemes and mortgage products that can provide as a guide to setting up a limited company in an effective way.

Scheme of Cash Accounting

The scheme of cash accounting lets the register ltd UK businesses to make the accountability for VAT based on the cash acquired and the cash paid. The receipt or the date of payment provides the information about the type of return that deals with the transaction. This means that an automatic relief of impairment loss or relief of bad debt is provided by the scheme of cash accounting. This is because the VAT’s payment does not become due on a supply till the acquiring of a payment.

A trader can only make use of the scheme if his annual turnover liable to tax, excluding VAT, is not assumed to be more than £1,350,000 over the upcoming duration of 12 months and whose payments of VAT and returns are updated till date.

If the cost of the supplies liable to tax becomes more than £1,600,000 in the duration of 12 months to the termination of a period of VAT, then a trader should instantly leave the scheme of cash accounting. There are certain benefits of the scheme which include cash flow and automatic relief in the case of impairment losses.

Scheme of Yearly Accounting

The scheme of annual accounting’s availability can be given only to the traders who have create company UK and are the regular payers of VAT to the HM Revenue and Customs, and not to the traders who acquire the payments in a normal way. It can be availed by the traders whose taxable turnover, excluding VAT are expected to be less than £1,350,000 over the period of upcoming 12 months.

The annual filing of returns of VAT is done by the traders and they are supposed to make the payment of 9 months on account equivalent to 90% of their liability of VAT for the preceding year, with the initial payment being due by the end of the year’s fourth month. A submission of annual VAT return should be made to the HMRC and the due balancing payment should also be made within the duration of two months by the end of the year. The traders have an option to make a payment of three larger interim instalments. If the payment of the instalments is made late, then it is not a default for the surcharge liability notice system aims.

In order to make use of the scheme all the returns should be updated. Yearly accounting is not available in the case when registration of VAT is done in the name of a group of VAT or division.

If the trader’s supplies liable to tax and its cost is more than £1,600,000, then a notice should be issued to HMRC within the duration of 30 days and then he may need to leave the scheme. If the limit of £1,600,000 is actually exceeded, then the trader is supposed to leave the scheme.

There are certain benefits of annual accounting that include:

  • Ability to manage the flow of cash in a more accurate manner.
  • Only one return of VAT each year so less events to trigger a default surcharge.
  • The need for quarterly calculations is avoided for the purposes of partial exemption and the recovery of input tax.

Some disadvantages of annual accounting include:

  • Time of payments is less correlated with the turnover and hence the cash acquired by business.
  • The requirement to monitor upcoming supplies liable to tax to make sure that the limit of turnover is not exceeded.
  • The current year’s turnover may not be reflected by the payments based on the turnover of previous year that can be a problem if the reduction in the scale of activities occurs.

Scheme of Flat Rate

The scheme of flat rate allows the businesses that have create company UK to make the calculation of VAT because of HMRC by applying simply a percentage of flat rate to their turnover including the VAT, that includes all exempt income and zero-rated income. The percentage is dependent upon the trade sector into which a business falls. Its range is from 4% for retailing food, newspapers or confectionery to 14.5% for book-keeping and accountancy. A reduction of 1% off the percentage of flat rate can be made by the businesses in their VAT registration’s first year.

The businesses making use of the scheme should make an issuance of the invoices of VAT to their registered customers of VAT but they do not have to keep a record of all the details of the invoices issued or buy invoices acquired for the calculation of due VAT. The issued invoices will present VAT at a normal rate instead of the flat rate.

In order to join the scheme of flat rate, the businesses should have a tax exclusive turnover liable to tax of up to an amount of £1,50,000. A business should leave the scheme of flat rate if the net value of its included tax is supplied in the year except the sales of capital assets is more than £2,30,000.

Example of Scheme of Flat Rate

Consider the example of an accountant who undertakes work for business clients and individuals. In a year of VAT, the amount of business client’s work is equal to £35,000 and the accountant will be issuing invoice of VAT that sum up to £42,000 (£35,000+VAT @ 20%). Turnover from work for individuals sums up to £18,000 including VAT. The total gross sales are hence, £60,000. The percentage of a flat rate for a business of accountancy is 14.5%.

Whether the accountant is better off under the scheme, it is dependent on the amount of input tax suffered as this would be offset from the due output tax according to the normal rules.

Personal Finance and Sources of Finance

The investments can only be made in the case where there is an availability of the funds. Generally, the private investor will have his own investment funds, whose accumulation is done from the profits of business or from salary, but it is up to him that he may make a decision to borrow money if wishes to make an investment that is expected to be profitable specifically, and for sure, various private individuals choose to borrow money to make an investment in buildings and land, purchasing their homes by making the use of mortgage loans.

Financial Sources for Private Usage

The individuals may acquire the following sources of finance for their private usage:

  • Bank and building society loans that are insecure
  • Credit cards
  • Bank overdrafts
  • Mortgage loans secured on the borrower’s home, from building societies and banks
  • Retailers giving the facilities
  • Hire purchase facilities

If a person makes a wish to buy a house or improve it, then the most suitable supposed source of finance is a mortgage loan. The fact that it is secured, results in the reduction of the risk to the lender, and hence the charge of interest made. For other huge purchases, hire credit facilities or the purchase facilities provided by the retailers may be the most fitting. There may be a reduction in the cost as an incentive to make the concerned purchase, and by making use of a particular facility results in the avoidance of tying up a huge proportion of a more general facility such as a credit card or an overdraft. A substitute to such particular facilities is an unsecured bank or a loan of building society, whose repayment should be done by agreed instalments over a confined period.

Varied and small purchases may be made by making use of a credit card, although if credit is taken, the rate of interest is quite high, in order to reflect the risk non-payment as accepted by the company of credit card. A facility of bank overdraft can prove useful in order to allow the individual to cope with times when on a temporary basis, the expense exceeds income, probably due to the fluctuating profits of business or due to occasional worthwhile opportunities of new investment such as the issues of new share.

Products termed as Mortgage

A mortgage can be an interest only mortgage or a repayment. The use of ISAs and pensions can be made in order to perform the accumulation of the required capital to make the repayment of an interest only mortgage.

While buying a house, most of the people have the need to borrow in order to finance the purchase. Normally, the mortgage loans are only repayable before the end of an agreed fixed term when the loan initiated.

A mortgage is a loan provided on a property’s security. The buyer makes the payment of a proportion of the cost of purchase of the property and a mortgage deposit is the balance lent by the mortgage lender.

The lender can acquire legal rights from the borrower over the property for the period of the loan. While there is an outstanding loan, the property remains the security of the lender that the repayment of the loan will be done. If the borrower does not keep the repayments of the loan, or the defaults, then the lender has all the rights to take the property’s possession, to sale it out or to make a recovery of the amount of the loan considering that the sale price is higher than the loan and make a payment of the balance to the borrower. If the repayment of the loan is done under the mortgage terms, the legal rights of the lender over the property pause by the termination of the term.

The borrower should make the payment of the interest during the term of the mortgage. The rate of interest as charged by a lender, may be variable, known as the variable rate mortgage in ltd formation UK. Some variable rates of interest are restricted to a mentioned maximum but may fall or rise depending on that maximum. These are known as the capped mortgages. The fixed rate mortgages are available at an interest rate that is confined for a particular time period.

Two methods exist for the repayment of a capital: one is during the term and the other one is by the end of it. However, it is possible to merge the two types of mortgage. For example, a borrower may borrow £70,000 on the basis of a repayment and £30000 on only the basis of interest.

By making the use of a repayment mortgage when the interest is paid to the lender every time, the repayment of a part of the capital is done at the same time. Payments are usually of a fixed regular amount. However, flexible mortgages may permit underpayments i.e. less than the regular monthly amount, payment holidays or overpayments. Additional borrowing facilities may also be available.

With the help of an interest only mortgage, the repayment of the whole capital sum is done on the final day of the mortgage. Most lenders will like the borrower to take an action over the term of mortgage for the accumulation of sufficient amount in order to repay the loan, such as by making an investment in a pension or individual savings account.

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