What are the principles of income tax according to different types of income in a business formation UK?


The income tax is liable on what individuals earn from their jobs, their savings or from businesses after registering a new business UK. The collection of the income of individual under the computation of personal tax and then working on the tax is considered in this blog. The family aspects of the income tax are also brought under consideration.

Income Aggregation

In the computation of personal income tax, all the sources are brought together, the sources being divided into savings, non-savings and dividend income.

As a basic rule, the charge of income tax is made on receipts that are expected to recur (for example, weekly wages or profits from carrying out a business formation UK). The income of an individual from all the sources is collected together or aggregated in the computation of personal tax for the year of tax.

The year of tax or the fiscal year or the assessment year is operational from April 6 to April 5. For example, the year of tax 2013 to 2014 is operational from April 6, 2013 to April 5, 2014.

All the income which is subject to income tax is the total income. Each of the amounts that form up the total income is known as the component. Total or net income is total income subtracting the interest and losses of trade from it. The liability of tax is the amount which is charged on the income of the individual. The payable tax is the balance of the liability yet to be settled in cash.

The charge of the income tax is made on the taxable income. The dealing of non-savings income is done first, following the savings income and then the income of dividends.

In the case of non-savings income, income up to the amount of £32,010 (basic limit of rate) is taxed at the basic rate (20%), income between £32,010 and £150,000 (the higher limit of rate) at the higher rate (40%) and any income that remains at additional rate (45%).

Different Types of Income

It should be remembered that the dividends are grossed up by 100/90 and interest by 100/80.

Classifying the Income

The classification of all the income acquired should be done depending on the nature of the income. This is due to the fact that different computational rules are applicable to different types of income. The basic types of income include:

  • Income acquired from pensions, employment and some benefits of social security.
  • Profits of businesses of property.
  • Profits of professions, trades and vocations.
  • Savings and income from investment, dividends and interested inclusive.
  • Miscellaneous income.

The employment income, profits from professions, trades, vocations and property letting income are the types of non-savings income. Pension is also a non-savings income.

What is Savings Income?

Interest is referred to as the savings income. The payment of interest is made on bank and building society accounts, on Government securities that include treasury stock and on the stock of company loan.

The payment of interest may be made net of 20% tax or its payment may be made in the form of gross.

Savings Income Acquired Gross

The following income from savings is acquired gross:

  • Interest from the loan stock of a UK company incorporation that is listed on a renowned stock exchange.
  • Interest from National Savings and Investments involving interest from investment accounts, direct saver accounts and income bonds.
  • Interest on the securities from government also known as the gilts.

The income from savings acquired net of 20% tax is mentioned below. This is known as the income taxed at source.

  • Interest from Bank and Building Society whose Payment is made to Individuals.
  • Income from Savings from the trusts of non-discretionary type.
  • Payment of interest made to individuals from the loan stock of company that is not listed on a renowned stock exchange.

The acquired amount is grossed up by multiplying by 100/80 and is the gross included in the computation of income tax. The subtracted tax at source is subtracting during the computation of payable tax and its repayment can be made.

Although the bank and building society interest, whose payment is made to the individuals, is in general paid net of 20% tax, if a recipient does not have the liability for the payment of tax, they can make the recovery of the suffered tax or they can give a certification in advance that they are non-payers of tax and acquire the interest gross.

Dividends on the Shares of UK

The acquiring of dividends on the shares of UK is done net of a 10% credit of tax. This means that a £90 dividend has a £10 credit of tax, the gross income hence being £100 to involve in the calculation of income tax. The subtraction of credit of tax can be done while making the computation of tax to be paid but its repayment cannot be done.

Which Income is Exempt?

There are some types of income which is not included in the income tax, as mentioned below:

  • Winnings from gaming and betting, premium bond prizes included
  • Some specific benefits of social security
  • Scholarships which are exempt as the income of the scholar. If its payment is made by the employer of parent, a scholarship may be the income of the parent which is liable to tax
  • Interest or terminal bonus on the National Savings and Investment Certificates
  • The Individual savings accounts (ISAs) making the income on investments

Deductible Interest for the Computation of Net Income

The deductible interest is subtracted from the total income for the computation of net income.

Payments from Interest

An individual who makes the payment of interest in a loan in a year of tax, holds the entitlement of relief in the year of tax if the loan is acquired for one of the purposes mentioned below:

  • Loan to purchase machinery or plant for the use of partnership. Interest is permitted for three years from the termination of the year of tax in which the loan was acquired. If the plant’s utilization is done partly for private usage, the apportionment of allowable interest is done.
  • Loan in order to purchase machinery or plant for employment purposes. The interest is permitted three years from the termination of the year of tax in which the loan was acquired. If the plant’s utilization is done partly for private usage, the apportionment of allowable interest is done.
  • Loan in order to obtain any part of the ordinary share capital of a close company (excluding a UK company incorporation with close investment-holding) or for lending money to such a company which is brought into use exclusively and in its entirety for its business purpose or that of an associated close company. A close company is a company under the control of the shareholder-directors or by five or less shareholders. When the payment of interest is made, the borrower should either get hold of some shares in the close company having company registration UK and work the greater part of their time in the actual conduct or management of the company (or of an associated company) or have a material interest in the close company (i.e. get hold of more than 5% of the shares). Also, usually, the individual should not have made a recovery of any capital from the company registration UK. There is no availability of relief if the claim for relief of enterprise investment scheme (EIS) is made on the shares.
  • Loan in order to purchase interest in a company controlled by employee. The company should be an unquoted company of trade residing in the UK with at least 50% of the voting shares within the holding of employees.
  • Loan for the purpose of making investment in partnership. The investment can be a share in a partnership or a contribution to the partnership of capital or a loan to the partnership. The individual should be a partner (excluding any limited partner) and the relief is stopped as soon as they stop being a partner.
  • Loan in order to make investment in a co-operative. The investment can be shares or a loan. The individual should spend the greater time of their time doing work for the co-operative.

The relief for tax is given by subtracting the interest from the total income in order to compute the net income for the year of tax in which the payment of interest is made. It is subtracted first from the non-savings income, then from the savings income and finally from the income acquired from dividends.

There exists a limit on the amount of deductions that can be made from the total income, including the deductible interest, that an individual taxpayer can make in a year of tax.

Allowances to be subtracted from Net Income

Personal Allowance

All persons hold an entitlement of a personal allowance which is subtracted from the net income, first against the non-savings income, then against savings income and finally against the dividend income. The personal allowance is lessened by £1 for each £2 that the net adjusted income exceeds an amount of £100,000 and can be reduced to nil.

Once the aggregation of the income from all sources has been done, and any deductible interest subtracted, the remainder is the income of the taxpayer. An allowance, known as the personal allowance, is subtracted from the net income. Like deductible interest, it results in the reduction of non-savings income first, followed by the savings income and finally the income from dividend.

All the individuals who are born after April 5, 1948 (children inclusive) have the entitlement of personal allowance of an amount equal to £9,440. However, if the adjusted net income of the individual exceeds £100,000, it results in the reduction of personal allowance by £1 for every £2 by which the adjusted net income is exceeded from £100,000 until the personal allowance is nil which is when the net income adjusted is £118,880 or more.

It should be noted that the net income adjusted is net income less the gross amounts of contributions from personal pension and gift aid donations.

In the case where an individual has a net income adjusted between £100,000 and £118,880, the rate of tax on the income between the two amounts mentioned will usually be 60%. The calculation of this is done as 40% (the higher rate on income) with additional 40% of half (which is 20%) of the extra income adjusted over £100,000 used for the restriction of personal allowance. The individual must take into consideration to make personal pension contributions for the reduction of adjusted net income to below £100,000.

Case of Higher Personal Allowance

The taxpayers who are born between April 6, 1938 and April 5, 1948 have an entitlement to a higher personal allowance of £10,500 and the taxpayers who are born before April 6, 1938 have an entitlement to a higher personal allowance of £10,660. The reduction of allowance is done by £1 for every £2 that the net income adjusted exceeds £26,100 but is in general not lessened below the amount of personal allowance which is available for the taxpayers who are born after April 5, 1948.

An individual who is born between April 6, 1938 and April 5, 1958 acquires a higher personal allowance of £10,500 rather than the personal allowance of £9,440.

An individual who is born before April 6, 1938 acquires a higher personal allowance of £10,660 rather than the personal allowance of £9,440.

Comments: Leave Comment

* The email will not be published on the website.